• TOPARAJ-2-1_F1

    Microsporidia: A Review of 150 Years of Research

    Microsporidiology is a field of science with a rather long history beginning in the middle of the 19th century when a microsporidian infection of the silkworm devastated the European silkworm industry. Several other microsporidia, mainly in insects and fish, were later described, but these organisms seemed to be mere curiosities for several years.

  • TOPARAJ-3-9_F1

    Prevalence of Neonatal Cryptosporidiosis in Andean Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Peru

    A national survey was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in alpacas 1 to 15 days-old of age (crias) in 105 Andean herds. Stool samples of 5,163 randomly selected crias from 7 representative geographical regions of Peru were screened using acid fast staining microscopy. Ninety percent of ~2.9 milllion Peruvian alpacas are raised in these areas.

  • TOPARAJ-2-59_F1

    Spatial Delimitation, Forecasting and Control of Japanese Encephalitis: India – A Case Study

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis through large parts of Asia with temperate and subtropical or tropical climate. In the present communication environmental determinants that influence the occurrence of JE have been enlisted, and based on which a conceptual frame for JE transmission was developed.

  • TOPARAJ-2-43_F1

    C-Kit Ligand Promotes Mast Cell Infection by Toxoplasma gondii

    Biological functions of mast cells include a functional role in innate immunity against parasitic infections. Here, we demonstrated that mast cells could also play a role in the anti-microbial defenses regulation and might participate as a parasite reservoir.

  • TOPARAJ-4-5_F1

    Biological Roles of Peptidases in Trypanosomatids

    In this review, we report the recent developments in the characterization of peptidases and their possible biological functions in the Trypanosomatidae family. The focus will be on peptidases from Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania spp., African trypanosomes and plant and insect trypanosomatids.

Editor's Choice

Vermamoeba vermiformis - A Free-Living Amoeba with Public Health and Environmental Health Significance

Patrick L. Scheid

Many case reports emphasize the fact that Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) can relatively easily get in contact with humans or animals. The presence of several facultative parasitic FLA in habitats related to human activities supports their public health relevance. While some strains of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and several other FLA have been described as facultative human pathogens, it remains controversial whether Vermamoeba vermiformis strains may have a pathogenic potential, or whether this FLA is just an incidental contaminant in a range of human cases. However, several cases support its role as a human parasite, either as the only etiological agent, or in combination with other pathogens. Additionally, a wide range of FLA is known as vectors of microorganisms (endocytobionts), hereby emphasizing their environmental significance. Among those FLA serving as hosts for and vectors of (pathogenic) endocytobionts, there are also descriptions of V. vermiformis as a vehicle and a reservoir of those endocytobionts. The involvement in animal and human health, the role as vector of pathogenic microorganisms and the pathogenicity in cell cultures, led to the assumption that V. vermiformis should be considered relevant in terms of public health and environmental health.


April 25, 2019
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