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Biological Membranes and Malaria-Parasites



Mohamed Moumaris1, 2, *, Jean-Michel Bretagne1, Nisen Abuaf2, 3
1 Direction des équipements, Hôtel-Dieu, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Paris Centre, Département des Investissements, AP-HP - 1 Place du Parvis Notre Dame, 75004 Paris, France
2 Laboratoire d'Hématologie et d’Immunologie, Hôpital Rothschild, 5 Rue Santerre, 75012 Paris and Hôpital Tenon, 4 Rue de la Chine 75020 Paris, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Paris Est, AP-HP et Département d'Immunologie, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - 4 Rue de la Chine - 75020 Paris
3 Service de Dermatologie et d'Allergie, Hôpital Tenon, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Paris Est, AP-HP et Université Pierre et Marie Curie - 4 Rue de la Chine - 75020 Paris


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© 2019 Moumaris et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Laboratoire d'Hématologie et d’Immunologie, Hôpital Rothschild, 5 Rue Santerre, 75012 Paris and Hôpital Tenon, AP-HP, 4 Rue de la Chine 75020 Paris, France; Tel: 0033762122825; E-mail: mohamed.moumaris@orange.fr


Abstract

Paludisme "a word derived from Latin palus meaning swamp" or Malaria " a word derived from Italian mala'ria meaning bad air", designed by the bad air from swamps, is an infectious disease caused by a parasite of the genus Plasmodium transmitted by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles generating millions of deaths each year. Biological membranes have a major role in cells invasion by Malaria parasites. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol are essential for the invasion of erythrocytes by Plasmodium. Plasmodium binds to the erythrocyte membrane via glycolipids. Cholesterol is responsible for the uptake of host proteins and maintenance of intracellular parasitophorous vacuolar membrane. Malaria parasites invade red blood cells by binding to multiple membrane receptors at the level of the spectrin, band 3, actin, glycophorin, band 4.1, band 4.2, aquaporin-1, band 7, and ankyrin. Parasitic proteins such as the reticulocyte-binding like family bind to the membrane erythrocytic proteins and play a major role in the mechanisms of invasion of red blood cells by Plasmodium. Susceptibility to Plasmodium invasion is linked to the terminal stages of the differentiation of red blood cells. This review highlights the complex interactions between biological membranes and malaria parasites.

Keywords: Paludisme, Malaria, Plasmodium, Pathogenesis, Membranes, Red Blood Cells, Theranostic.