Endosymbiosis in Trypanosomatids as a Model to Study Cell Evolution
Maria Cristina M. Motta*
Identifiers and Pagination:Year: 2010
First Page: 139
Last Page: 147
Publisher Id: TOPARAJ-4-139
Article History:Received Date: 12/10/2009
Revision Received Date: 6/4/2010
Acceptance Date: 8/4/2010
Electronic publication date: 10/12/2010
Collection year: 2010
open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Some trypanosomatids harbor a symbiotic bacterium, which maintains a close association with the host, constituting an excellent model to study organelle origin and cellular evolution. Molecular data show that all endosymbiontharboring trypanosomatids are grouped together in a single phylogenetic branch. According to rRNA sequences, symbionts of different species are similar, being classified in the ß division of Proteobacteria, thus suggesting that a single evolutionary event gave rise to the symbiosis in the Trypanosomatidae family. The bacterium is enclosed by two unit membranes and presents a reduced peptidoglycan layer, which is essential for cell division and morphological maintenance. Regarding the protein composition, the number of intramembrane particles in the endosymbiont envelope is similar to that described for Gram-negative bacteria. Lipid analyses of purified endosymbionts show absence of sterols and indicate phosphatidylcholine as a major component of the envelope, as described in other intracellular bacteria. The presence of the endosymbiont is associated with distinct ultrastructural and physico-chemical alterations in the trypanosomatid and influences the protozoan interaction with the insect host and mammalian cells. Symbiont-containing trypanosomatids are able to infect and to replicate inside fibroblasts and macrophages, whose microbicidal activity was deactivated by HIV-1 infection. The symbiosis in trypanosomatids is characterized by intensive metabolic exchanges; the bacterium expresses enzymes and metabolic precursors that complete essential biosynthetic pathways of the protozoan. Conversely, the symbiont is capable of obtaining part of the required energetic molecules from the host glycosomes. Taken together data suggest that endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids represents an interesting model to study cell evolution.