Spatial Delimitation, Forecasting and Control of Japanese Encephalitis: India – A Case Study

Shanmugavelu Sabesan*, Hari Kishan Raju Konuganti *, Vanamail Perumal
Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry - 605 006, India.

© 2008 Sabesanet al;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry - 605 006, India; Tel: + 91 413 2279072; Mobile: +91 94432 55377; Fax: +91 413 2272041; E-mail:


Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis through large parts of Asia with temperate and subtropical or tropical climate. In the present communication environmental determinants that influence the occurrence of JE have been enlisted, and based on which a conceptual frame for JE transmission was developed. The concept of endemic and epidemic has been defined using cluster analysis on JE occurrences in 175 districts over a period of 53 years in India. The average number (±standard deviation) of occurrences in endemic (7.4±3.5) and epidemic districts (3.4±2.9) was statistically significant (‘t’=8.3; P=0.000). In the epidemic areas, JE immunization of target population in the risk area may be an effective preventive measure. In the endemic areas regular monitoring of vector population and viral activity, and implementing appropriate integrated methods of vector control are likely to reduce the transmission, besides the selective immunization of children.

Keywords: Japanese encephalitis, Delimitation, Forecasting, Forecasting, Vector control strategy, India.